What you should know about furniture

Upholstered furniture is often purchased on the basis of visual considerations. Seating comfort and modern comfort functions are important decision criteria alongside design. Regardless of the materials used, construction and workmanship, important product characteristics must be taken into account in the qualitative assessment of furniture, as these do not represent a material defect in the event of subsequent changes and normal, natural use.


Air humidity, heating, room climate

Materials made from wood are natural materials and are therefore constantly exposed to the moisture content of the air in the room. Wood therefore works and changes constantly. Furniture made from solid wood, for example, should not be subjected to extremely high or extremely low humidity. Furniture made from solid wood is unsuitable for underfloor heating, or must be provided with special protection. Otherwise the wood starts to work, contracts, shrinks, and glued joints may open or cracks may occur.

According to medicine and science, the room climate which is best for people and plants should be an annual average relative humidity of 45-55 % and a temperature of 18-23 °C. Short-term deviations from these recommended values are not damaging immediately, but long periods with values that are too extreme must be avoided. It is therefore advisable to install a thermometer and a hygrometer in the room. With upholstered furniture and textiles, carpet etc., if the air is too dry sensitive electrostatic charging can occur (see electrostatic charging). If the walls are continuously damp, mould and material damage can occur.

Assembly / assembly instructions / enclosures

It is essential that you follow these instructions.


Care instructions

Guiding principle

Please always pay careful attention to the detailed product information, usage, cleaning and care instructions and also the manufacturer’s instructions on the product! We would like you to enjoy our furniture for a long time. No warranty is given for damage caused by incorrect handling or the use of the wrong care materials. This also applies to subsequent stain proofing of fabrics or leather using external products, and extends to the private living area.

Do not put hot, heavy, sharp-edged or damp objects onto high-quality furniture surfaces, since this will cause pressure points or marks. Spilled acidic liquids such as fruit juice and alcohol must be dabbed off immediately and are not allowed to penetrate. Never rub the affected area using a great deal of pressure. Tobacco smoke, kitchen fumes and the effects of the environment leave their traces.

In order to keep furniture in good condition for as long as possible, it must be cleaned at regular intervals.

Chemical cleaning agents

Care must be taken with chemical cleaning agents such as acetone, acetic acid, cellulose thinner, sal ammoniac etc. These substances do not just damage the sensitive surface, but can also be a health hazard. Please always read the product description and the manufacturer’s specification carefully.

Chemical reactions

Chemical reactions or discolouration may occur with many furniture surfaces that have long periods of contact with different materials, particularly plastics.

Sweat or grease from the skin, or from the skin of the head via the hair can »migrate« into leather in the event of frequent contact. This grease then oxidises and cancels out the effect of the tanning agents from the leather after long periods of use, which can make the leather lose its structure. The pH value of sweat can also contribute to this effect.

Typical areas on upholstered furniture are the armrests, headrests and also other areas which are subjected to intensive skin contact. Prompt and regular cleaning and care and covering the leather with cushions and throws can slow down these negative changes. Sweating as a result of taking medication is also suspected of having a special effect on leather in isolated cases, although it cannot be assumed that leather is generally at risk from people who take medication. This has not been scientifically investigated to date. Sunscreen and cosmetics such as creams should not come into contact with the leather of furniture via the skin.

Colour and structure differences in solid wood and real wood veneer

Different natural and growth features make every furniture item in which real wood is used »one of a kind« with a unique appearance. Wood changes under the effect of sunlight and daylight, and the more untreated it is, the faster this occurs. Therefore there is no guarantee that the material will have an identical colour and structure, e.g. between a planning sample and the delivered item or between the horizontal and vertical structure of the wood, since this is typical of the product. The structure and colour of wood and veneer from different logs or areas of a log do not match, and colour deviations occur during the usage period of the furniture. When subsequent additions are made therefore it is advisable to have customised furniture manufactured in accordance with appropriate samples. However, these can also change in different ways again over the course of time due to the effects of sunlight and daylight. 

Special model-related processing methods such as vertically and horizontally running veneer, »fallen« veneer cutting for visual formatting, veneer and solid wood combinations, end grain and side grain combinations, »re-glued« or parquet gluing in  order to achieve shape stability also lead to light and dark colour and structure highlights depending on the type of wood, the location and the light incidence. These colour variations are typical characteristics of the material and are an essential  unmistakable authenticity feature.

Colour deviations / colour patterns

Minor deviations between the showroom product and the delivered product in accordance with sample palettes or when re-ordering are unavoidable because of industrial manufacturing tolerances. The colour, texture, structure and pattern can only be approximately achieved, i.e. not 100 %.

The structure of wood etc. also differs considerably from delivery to delivery. This applies to all natural materials, textiles and leather. Deliveries in accord­ance with colour samples are therefore usually excluded from complaints and replacement. We attempt to achieve the best possible match. It is always advisable to order in accordance with special coloured patterns in order to avoid colour and structure differences.

Colour migration / textiles which are non-colour-fast

With light material or leather coverings, colour migration may occur (marking or colour migration) in combination with dark or intensive colour shades, particularly with dark red, blue, black etc. The clothing industry is also aware of this phenomenon. This has been proven to be a defect in the clothing material. This has nothing to do with the quality of the furniture covering. Complaints of this nature can therefore not be accepted.

Marking caused by items of clothing on light upholstered furniture is particularly known from jeans, and on velours leather or microfibres this may also be due to small quantities of abrasive dust residue. This can be rectified by means of careful vacuuming or wiping with a damp cloth. Slight colour changes are typical with the product.

Cushions / chair covers / removable covers

Particular attention must be paid to several things when using removable furniture covers. It is essential to pay attention to the composition of the material and the cleaning information. Can they be cleaned with chemicals? Are they washable, and how? Usually only up to 30 °C. They can easily shrink a little, and if they are not handled properly they may then be impossible or difficult to fit.


Differences in seat firmness

The seating comfort within an upholstered suite may vary. Industrial manufacturing methods can result in varying seating hardnesses in the individual units caused by the design and shape (e. g. with corner units, functional components, conversion units, extension stools, various basic geometric shapes, end units, etc.). Even foam, within its relative density, can have manufacturing tolerances of plus or minus 15 %.

It is important that you try sitting on the furniture before purchase. Even when new, there can be large tolerances in foam for reasons related to manufacturing. Seat or back hardness is only generally consistent in upholstered parts of the same size and shape.


Electrical devices and electrical components

For all electrical devices and electronic components, special attention must be paid to the usage instructions. Only the replacement devices recommended by the manufacturer may be used. Failure to comply with this will lead to consequential damage, failure, overheating etc.! In the event of failures or problems, a competent customer service company must be consulted.

Electrostatic charging

Furniture materials and other mainly synthetic materials have natural conductivity. Electrostatic charging can occur with furniture materials due to friction with clothing textiles in combination with floor coverings. Electrostatic charging is primarily associated with air that is too dry in living rooms, particularly in the winter months due to long periods of heating and in combination with synthetic materials such as carpets, textiles, textile upholstery, and occasionally with special types of painted surface.

The dry air can lead to »drying out« of the covering. A quick solution can be achieved by increasing the humidity in the room by thoroughly moistening the carpet and wiping down the upholstery (but not making it soaking wet!).



Our selection of textile covers is growing steadily. You should not choose by visual appearance alone, but also depending on use, as well as cleaning and care. Your individual needs and house size are the most influential factor. Pay attention to the different fabrics and product information from the manufacturer. Do you have pets? Then please remember that there are no scratch-proof cover fabrics! It is particularly important that you seek advice when buying upholstered furniture.


The delineation of the chambers, quilting and/or filing material is a material and model-related characteristic in quilted mats, chamber cushions and cushions with loose filler material.

Friction resistance

Goldenes M - GütesiegelWith regard to the colours of furniture fabrics, they are friction resistant if they fulfil the requirements of RAL-GZ 430/4 of the »Deutsche Gütegemeinschaft Möbel e.V.« These requirements determine the extent to which a covering may mark or rub off. Light colours usually have better friction resistance than darker colours. Only distilled water and neutral soap should be used for cleaning, and you should rub carefully with a white, soft clean cloth, always over a large area from seam to seam, gently and without pressure and never on the same spot (colour rub-off and marks)! Please do not use microfibre cloths or steam cleaners. A test in a non-visible location would be advisable.

Caution: Always pay attention to the detailed manufacturer’s information on the product! The warranty/guarantee does not cover damage caused by external products such as steam cleaners, impregnation and cleaning material that is not recommended by the manufacturer, marking caused by jeans and other textiles which are not colour-fast, Velcro tape on leisure clothing and other stuck-on substances containing sugar, acid, plasticiser, bleach or solvent, alcohol residue, adhesive tape of any kind (e.g. Sellotape).



Exposure to light, spotlights etc. and especially sunlight can change the colour, appearance and feel of leather. The leather can dry out, become porous and brittle if it is permanently near radiators that are switched on. See general notes, room climate and exposure to light. Depending on its type and quality as well as the degree of use, genuine leather always needs regular cleaning and care. In case of stubborn problems, a specialist should be consulted.

Detailed information on our individual leathers can be found on our website. Please be sure to follow the manufacturer's care instructions for leather!

Care tips & guidlines

Leg and floor protection

Pay attention to the leg connections of the furniture when making your purchase. Industrial mass production determines the model-specific standard thereof. In order to protect the different floors from scratches or damage, separate protective underlays such as felt, plastic, rubber or other glides must be placed beneath the manufacturer’s leg variants if necessary.

Light fastness in accordance with RAL-GZ 430/4

Light fastness is the resistance of a covering material to the effect of light (particularly sunlight, daylight, halogen lighting etc.).

Light sources such as this (particularly sunlight) change surfaces, particularly wood surfaces, natural materials (e.g. cotton) and leather. This type of »sunburn« leads to colour changes due to chemical build-up. The discolouration of the material under the influence of light cannot be prevented in furniture coverings. Natural wood can go darker or yellow, and stained wood can fade. Valuable furniture must be protected from extreme light effects, since »absolute« light fastness cannot be achieved.

The elemental power of the sun changes any material! Particular care therefore must be taken in bright south-facing rooms with a large proportion of light and glass. Particularly in sunlight, curtains or blinds should be closed, since otherwise the colour or brightness of the covering materials and surfaces may change in the affected locations after just a few weeks. »Colour changes« such as this have no influence on the usage or service life of the furniture.


Upholstered furniture, furniture items, tables, functional furniture etc. must be horizontally aligned and straight when it is set up or installed. Small height differences due to uneven floors or unevenness during installation can lead to consequential damage to the subframe after weeks or months, e.g. cracking or squeaking noises. In order to protect your floor from scratches, the respective floor covering must be protected with an additional underlay (e.g. felt glides).



In this case, the manufacturer’s instructions on the product must always be followed! Daily use leaves traces behind. It is important for spilled liquids or contamination (e.g. fruit juice, alcohol etc.) to be dabbed off immediately with an absorbent kitchen towel or clean cloth/dishcloth – not rubbed, so that the liquid cannot penetrate the surface. Do not use microfibre cloths. Do not rub on the spot, and do not use furniture cleaner containing silicone. Never remove damaged areas using solvents (e.g. stain remover, turpentine, petrol, and certainly not a steam cleaner).


Caution is required with textiles that are not colour-fast, particularly dyed cotton materials such as jeans and T-shirts in intensive colour shades (red, black, dark blue etc.), which can cause marking because of body heat, moisture etc. This frequently happens with light covers on upholstered parts. This is usually caused by the textiles, not the uphol­stered furniture. The same applies to full-grain or velours leather. Please read the product information from the textile and leather manufacturers.

Measurement, installation and alignment

The measuring and planning of furniture is one of the most important tasks during furnishing and installation. The purchaser is responsible for ensuring that the furniture will actually fit in the house or apartment!

Furniture should not be placed flush against the wall or too close to radiators or light sources. Sufficient air circulation must be provided. It is essential for furniture items to be aligned straight! Failure to do this will quickly result in consequential damage (e.g. tilting, trapping, squeaking, tearing, scratching and distortion) and even material breaches!

Metal parts and finishes

Structural and colour deviations cannot be avoided. Painted metals, anodised or polished aluminium: A weak solution of washing-up liquid can be used for cleaning these metals. Alcohol and cleaning agent must not be used under any circumstances. Always wipe dry. For painted metals, anodised, polished or brushed aluminium, chromium, gold-plated surfaces, stainless steel, high-gloss polishing etc. the cleaning and care instructions must be adhered to.

Microfibre cloths

Not everything that is available for chrome, stainless steel, metal, mirrors and glass is good for furniture as well. Therefore: Just to be safe, do not use microfibre cloths for furniture surfaces, upholstered furniture coverings such as leather, artificial leather or fabrics of any kind. Soft, clean cloths such as dishcloths or chamois leathers are more suitable, particularly in combination with the right cleaning agents.


New builds

The floors and walls of new buildings are sometimes extremely damp after moving in. Excessive building moisture and relative humidity of more than 65 % are often unavoidable in the first few months. In this condition, furniture items must not be fitted or placed directly next to or with extensive areas of the furniture touching the wall until all floors and walls have dried properly. Otherwise moisture damage could quickly occur, materials could swell or unhealthy mould formation or mould stains could occur.

The north side of the building is particularly critical. In these cases, sufficient air circulation behind the furniture items must be provided. This is extremely important. Air which is too dry is just as damaging to persons and material as air that is moist. The correct annual averages are a temperature of 18-23 °C and relative humidity of 45-55 %.

See also »measurement«, »installation«, »alignment« and »air humidity« for more information.



It is well known that new things have an odour. This can last for several weeks or months, depending on the material and the composition. Frequent ventilation or wiping with a damp cloth can help with this. Certain products such as leather or solid wood have a certain odour which is permanently present.


Performance characteristics

Upholstered furniture is often purchased based on its appearance. Along with the design, comfort and modern comfort functions are important decisionmaking criteria. No matter what materials are used, construction and processing are important product characteristics to consider when evaluating the quality of furniture, because these characteristics do not constitute material defects in the event of later changes from normal, natural use.
Are changes caused by use that do not reflect upon workmanship and quality (e.g. »favourite spot« on upholstered furniture).


Extreme caution must be taken in this case. With pets it is the same as with all beings or objects that you are fond of – tolerance and understanding is required. Pets cannot be monitored 24 hours per day. It is up to the pet owners, house or apartment owners to supervise pets. A great deal of information is available from specialist magazines and media such as Stiftung Warentest (German consumer safety group), »Ein Herz für Tiere« (»A Heart for Animals« magazine) etc.

One thing is for sure: Claws and animals with beaks can cause considerable and often irreparable damage. Animal hair, particularly cat hair, is difficult to remove from textiles. Cats, dogs etc. are free-roaming and bring everything possible with them into the house. There should not be any contact between animals and the coverings of furniture in order to protect small children and babies.

Effective protection would be to protect the furniture that is at risk with suitable materials (covers, throws, etc., which can be washed or dry cleaned) from damage by animals.

Pilling formation

To begin with, small knots appear on some covering materials (mainly flat and mixed fabric) like the ones on woollen pullovers. These are usually caused by contact with external textiles which the user is wearing when sitting on the upholstered furniture. External pilling is a characteristic that is typical of the product, not a material defect.

Special fluff removers are available with which the pills can be removed without problems in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions without damaging the covering fabric. Or they are loose particles of the yarn that has been used, usually mixed with clothing fluff. Pills frequently occur after a short period of use. Pilling formation and the removal of pills do not affect the durability of the furniture fabric.

Planning materials and delivery

A prerequisite for defect-free delivery and installation is exact determination of requirements, including room sizes, dimensions, wall composition and free access to the installation location (including door, stairway and corridor widths, lift, floor etc., these details come from the purchaser). The following must be clarified: Have the sockets and light switches been correctly routed? It must also be taken into consideration that the floor, walls and ceilings are not quite straight and must therefore be adapted and compensated for during installation. If changes are made to the rooms at short notice, the vendor and the installer must be notified thereof in good time. The relevant room must be accessible. The furniture must be arranged in such a way that it is horizontally aligned.

Pressure points

Pressure points on furniture and furnishing items can occur extremely quick and in a variety of ways. With carpets this results in pile displacement (pressure point caused by the leg of a sofa, for example), which manifests itself to varying degrees depending on the light incidence and the observation angle. So-called »wear lustre« can appear in velour materials. These are »product-typical characteristics«. If pressure points occur due to external influences on furniture during use, e.g. on leg of the furniture caused by collisions with the vacuum cleaner, these are known as »wear marks«.


Ripple and hollow formation (crease formation)

Definition of term in accordance with RAL-GZ 430/4: »A ripple is a deformation that deviates from the original upholstery surface. A crease is a ripple with a kink«. The measuring method and the tolerances can be found in RAL-GZ 430/4. With so-called »sitting in« or »lying in« the seat firmness and the appearance usually change after even a short period of use. The seat firmness reduces depending on the type and duration of use. The body weight of the person(s) using the furniture also plays a part. 

This is a normal process which all upholstery goes through. In order to achieve even seat firmness for as long as possible, it is important to switch your favourite places on upholstered furniture. Otherwise one-sided ripple or hollow formation may occur. This development is supported by the fact that the covering materials stretch more or less under the influence of body weight and heat and cause »ripples« to form.
These visual changes have little influence on usage, functionality and service life, and are not a defect. Regular plumping of the coverings and cushions are a part of normal duty of care. The »ripples or creases« can be measured by specialists or experts exactly and in accordance with regulations.

Exception: This procedure for determining the ripple may not be carried out on »very loose« models, since for design reasons the cut of the covering has been kept somewhat bigger or the upholstery structure contains softer materials (e.g. down coverings, extremely delicate padding, mat coverings, belt spring base etc.). The guideline values cannot be used in this case. The ripple formation may be more pronounced here, without being a cause for complaint. Source: RAL-GZ 430/4. »Stiftung Warentest« recommends using the seats as evenly as possible so that the appearance can adapt itself to your sitting habits. If you do not like or even reject this soft appearance, you should choose sitting and lying furniture with »firm« padding.



It is well known that light and single-colour coverings or materials are generally more sensitive than dark, patterned materials or muted colours. This also applies to any stain protector impregnation which may be present and »natural products« in general. The more natural a product, the less sensitively it reacts to external influences.

Sheen / Wear lustre

This effect occurs in all velvety materials such as velours, chenille materials and possibly microfibres or velours-like surfaces such as carpets or textiles. The deeper the pile (cosy, soft) the flatter it will be made by body pressure, body moisture, heat and sitting position. Depending on the light incidence and the observation angle, it can then have a light/dark or matt/glossy effect. This is not a material defect but a characteristic that is typical of the product. It has no effect on the use, benefit, functionality or service life of the covering.

Steam cleaners

Steam cleaners are not suitable for furniture, even if certain advertising promises otherwise. The steam pressure can destroy surfaces relatively quickly.



Goldenes M - GütesiegelTolerances cannot be avoided in furniture during industrial mass production and for technical manufacturing reasons. The majority of tolerances are laid down in the quality and test conditions RAL-GZ 430/4 of the »Deutsche Gütegemeinschaft Möbel e.V.« with the »Golden M« quality symbol. If the deviations (tolerances) are in the insignificant range with regard to colour, dimensions and structure as far as the national and international standard is concerned, no defect is present. These are »product-specific characteristics«. These are acceptable production and manufacturing deviations – almost always minor visual deviations which have no effect on usage, benefit, functionality, safety and service life.


Only use the fittings, tools and materials prescribed by the manufacturer. Failure to do this usually invalidates the warranty. In case of doubt, consult an expert.


Underfloor heating

Particular care should be taken when putting solid wood furniture onto underfloor heating. This may cause additional drying of the wood and result in shrinkage, distortion or crack formation. We therefore recommend additional moistening.

Upholstered furniture in general

Upholstered furniture is soft and malleable. It should not be purchased on the basis of attractiveness alone, but also in accordance with the respective requirements. That which is often underestimated is the fact that upholstered furniture is used for about 3-5 hours per day, usually in a favourite location. Visual changes are then unavoidable, and normal wear will occur. This has very little effect on usage, benefit or service life.

Upholstered furniture must be horizontally aligned and be straight. If the floor is uneven or made uneven because of carpets, this must be compensated for or something placed beneath the furniture (please pay attention to product information).


A distinction must be made between »firm«, i.e. essentially smooth upholstery and »loose« or »very loose« upholstery 

With all upholstery, a reduction in seat firmness is unavoidable depending on the duration of use and the body weight of the persons using the furniture. It is also relevant whether »chamber cushions« have been processed. This can lead to impairment of the individual chambers. This is a characteristic which is typical of the product and is not a reason for complaint. In order to flatten the surfaces after use, depending on the type of upholstery the seat cushion and the back cushion should be plumped at regular intervals.

Upholstery – »firm« upholstery

With this type of upholstery, the covering is pulled tight over the padding and joined. This avoids excessive crease formation during use. In the majority of cases, the creases that are formed during sitting even themselves out again. However, permanent crease formation may occur as the amount of use increases, minor though it may be. This is not a quality defect but a characteristic that is typical of the product, and is not  attributable to deterioration of the upholstery but the expansion of the covering material. A typical recognition feature is its straight-lined appearance. The seating comfort differs from other types of upholstery in that you do not sink very deep into the padding but sit firmly on top of the padding. Lines, e.g. at curves or gatherings are design,  model or structure-related.

Upholstery – »loose« upholstery

The »loose upholstery« that we prefer is recognisable by its suppleness. With this type of upholstery, the covering is not continuously attached to the padding. The padding is softer and the cover is looser, meaning that you sit »in the sofa« and not »on the sofa«. A visually rippled surface of the coverings and wear lustre are not a quality defect, but are model-related or desirable from a design point of view, for providing optimum sitting comfort. It can be assumed that the upholstery is soft if gathers or rippling are present in some locations. It can be assumed that the coverings will stretch during use and the formation of ripples may increase. However, this change does not affect usability.

Upholstery – »very loose« upholstery

»Very loose upholstery« is characterised by the extremely soft surface. The coverings can have a distinct ripple pattern when the furniture is new, which is desirable from a design, model and construction related point of view. It can be assumed that the coverings will stretch during use and the formation of ripples may increase. However, this change does not affect usability (see also »Ripple and hollow formation«). The filling material is contained within the cushion in chambers so that it does not shift. Both the chambers and the material are more of less apparent depending on the type and thickness of the covering material. In order to minimise usage-related ripple/crease formation, depending on the amount of use the coverings of the seat cushion and the back cushion must be plumped at regular intervals.

Upholstery with chamber cushions

Some of the suites in our collection are equipped with high-quality chamber cushions (inlets) in the seat and/or the back cushion. Depending on the model, the filling of these cushions can consist of pieces of foam or flakes in a mixture of polyester fibres. The filling material is contained within the cushion in chambers so that it does not shift. Both the chambers and the material are more of less apparent depending on the type and thickness of the covering material. In order to minimise usagerelated ripple/crease formation, depending on the amount of use the coverings of the seat cushion and the back cushion must be plumped at regular intervals.


Weight-bearing capacity

The load-bearing capability of upholstered furniture, functional items and complementary items in general, be it made from glass, wood, metal or plastic, is extremely variable and limited. For this reason, attention must be paid to the maximum load-bearing capability limits in the manufacturer’s specifications. Proper and sufficient support and stability is required. The individual values and notes can be found in the respective model enclosures. The requirements of the RAL-GZ 430/4 of the »Deutsche Gütegemeinschaft Möbel e.V.« (German Furniture Quality Assurance Association) act as a guideline.

Wood materials

The quality of a product is not really dependent on whether a furniture item is made from wood materials or solid wood, but rather on the quality of the material which is used and the workmanship. The well-tried boards of material (chipboard), medium-density fibre boards (MDF), timber, three layer boards and wood-core plywood are of extremely high quality. Be it with veneer, foil or a painted surface, they are extremely stable, less susceptible to temperature fluctuations and versatile. The materials from which they are made are sustainably tested and certified for being harmless to health in accordance with the EU directives and the stricter RAL requirements of the »Deutsche Gütegemeinschaft Möbel e.V.« Wood materials protect our natural resources to a considerable extent.